Fetal cell transplants can be manufactured for clinical use from fetuses
of any member of animal kingdom, from Homo Sapiens to fish.
All cell transplants can be obtained from animal sources.
While there has always been a shortage of human organs, tissues and cells
for transplantation, the cells, tissues and organs, of animal origin have
Cell xeno-transplantation can be used already today for treatment of thousands of sick people suffering from diseases that cannot be cured or even treated by any other therapy. They can be prepared in unlimited quantities, and ultimately at low cost.
Difficulties with procurement of human fetal material – ethical, moral, religious, psychological – that ultimately lead to paucity of such material for cell transplantation, have been, and will be, a continuous problem.
It has been, and will be, hard to develop cell transplantation as a therapeutic method if there is enough material to treat only a few patients: this situation has been slowing down progress for many years.
Xeno-transplantation means the transplantation of live cells, tissues, or organs between the species, in our case from animals to humans, or reverse.
Allo-transplantation means a transplantation within species, i.e. from a man to a man, or from horse to a horse, etc.
Here are some scientific facts that explain why cell xeno-transplantation can be used instead of cell allo-transplantation for treatment of incurable or no longer treatable disease.
- It has been known already since 19th century, and the entire modern cell biology is based on the fact, that all eukaryotic cells in Nature are built and function according to the same laws. In clinical practice of cell transplantation we have been dealing with eukaryotic cells (of mammals) only.
- Main cells of the same organ or tissue are the same in Nature, (or nearly the same), regardless of the species of origin. It means that corresponding cells of the identical organ of different animal species (including man) are biologically similar. The hepatocyte, the main cell of liver, is almost the same in all vertebrates, for example. And we could make a similar statement about any of ~ 200 kinds of cells of human or animal body. Scientists call this a ‘principle of organospecificity’. There are no antigenic differences between the corresponding cells of the identical organ of different animal species (including man). This is another proof of ‘organospecificity’.
- All biological systems in Nature are composed of the same types of molecules. Great majority of proteins from different organisms (including man) is similar over the entire amino acid sequence, i.e. they are homologous of each other, and in general carry out similar functions. Scientists call this a ‘principle of homology’. The homologous proteins evolved over billions of years from a common ancestor.
- The basic law of molecular biology, whereby DNA directs the synthesis of RNA, that in turn directs the assembly of proteins, applies to all living beings. Genetic encoding is the same in most known organisms. ‘Families’ of similar genes encode proteins with similar functions. All that implies that life on Earth evolved only once.
The described scientific data explain why it has been possible to implant live cell transplants prepared from fetuses of sheep, cattle, pigs, horses, rabbits, and probably other mammals, in ~ 5 million patients over the past 90+ years, without any fatality or other serious consequences for individual patients or mankind.
Bio-Cellular Research Organization has always manufactured cell
transplants from rabbit fetuses (with the exception of cell transplants of
various endocrine glands, where newborn rabbits have been the animal
source; ‘rabbitologists feel that there is no difference between a rabbit
fetus after completion of organogenesis and a newborn rabbit).